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International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science

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Assessment of Packing Density Models and Optimizing Concrete Mixtures( Vol-2,Issue-4,July 2016 )


Fayez Moutassem


aggregate packing, concrete aggregates, maximum packing, packing density, void ratio


Packing density, an indicator of how efficiently particles fill a certain volume, influences the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The optimum packing density is conducive to the flowing ability (rheology) and segregation resistance of fresh concrete, whereas the hardened properties and durability improve due to dense particle packing. The maximum packing density is difficult to determine experimentally and therefore, analytical models have been developed for that purpose. This study provides a quantitative assessment of nine packing density models reported in the literature i.e. the applicability of these models for predicting the maximum packing density of aggregates used in concrete applications. Three different compaction methods are considered; loose, rodding and vibration. Results show that only three models are adequate for concrete and that the optimum sand to aggregate ratio occurs between 0.4 and 0.6. Consequently, an improved mixture proportioning methodology that optimizes packing density is developed and proposed.

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